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The Artificial Pancreas, Stem Cells and New Frontiers In Diet, Exercise and Meal Planning

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Experts at the Mayo Clinic are developing an artificial pancreas capable of delivering insulin into the body while eliminating the prospect of injections each day. This is a revolutionary new way of managing diabetes employing an insulin delivery algorithm for monitoring blood glucose levels in real time. Precise computations of blood sugar are important because in Type 1 diabetes,  the pancreas is functioning at a degraded level where little or no insulin is produced.

Mayo has a dual track research effort. Scientists are using adult stem cells to regenerate insulin-producing cells in Type 1 diabetes patients. This adult stem cell research is being conducted alongside the research on the artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas and the stem cell implantation projects are
complementary because the artificial pancreas can be employed to test the
effectiveness of newly implanted insulin-producing stem cells.

The artificial pancreas uses a dual abdominal patch very similar to the patches used during an EKG test. The patch measures blood sugar in real time. A mini- pump delivers insulin under the skin. Mayo’s new innovation is the sophisticated insulin delivery algorithm which links the patch and mini-pump in real time.

An insulin delivery algorithm uses past glucose monitoring, the predicted glucose monitoring of the upcoming period and a predicted blood glucose monitoring over the next 4-6 hours based upon a system mean model and the expected meals to be consumed later in the day. Once the expected meals are known and input into the system, then the amount of insulin can be infused iteratively into the body to normalize the blood sugar levels based upon an insulin delivery algorithm.

Any differences in the way a person consumes food can be accounted for by an enforced exercise program. Such a program facilitates normalizing the blood glucose level through automated insulin infusions combined with exercise to bring the body into a blood glucose balance. This is true because researchers have found an important relationship between body insulin levels, physical exercise and the individual patient metabolic response.

Physical trainers have an intuitive knowledge of this phenomena from extensive experience in training athletes and integrating elite training with planned meals and ideal combinations of protein, carbohydrates and good fats. Trainers intuitively replace protein with sugar consumption to overcome the glucose accumulation issues strictly by diet and portion control. In addition, there are natural substitutes for white sugar; such as, stevia, cinnamin, anise and other products.

Jan Philip Stegemann developed an artificial pancreas comprising one or more physiologically active pancreatic islet cells capable of producing insulin and encapsulated with a semipermeable membrane made of agar gel. Agar gels by a thermal process as opposed to the ionic one in alginate beads. This difference imparts chemical stability to agar beads in that they do not dissolve in certain ionic solutions according to Stegemann.

Diabetic research is on a new frontier. The discipline is moving from a purely pharmaceutical approach to a modified pharmaceutical system utilizing patches, central processing units, insulin delivery algorithms and stem cells. In addition, diet, exercise and meal timing are important determinants in the equation to normalize blood sugar in the most difficult medical cases which have not responded well to medical management in the past.

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About Dr Joseph S Maresca

I've taught approx. 34 sections of collegiate courses including computer applications, college algebra, collegiate statistics, law, accounting, finance and economics. The experience includes service as a Board Director on the CPA Journal and Editor of the CPA Candidates Inc. Newsletter. In college, I worked as a statistics lab assistant. Manhattan College awarded a BS in an allied area of operations research. The program included courses in calculus, ordinary differential equations, probability, statistical inference, linear algebra , the more advanced operations research, price analysis and econometrics. Membership in the Delta Mu Delta National Honor Society was granted together with the degree. My experience includes both private account and industry. In addition, I've worked extensively in the Examinations Division of the AICPA from time to time. Recently, I passed the Engineering in Training Exam which consisted of 9 hours of examination in chemistry, physics, calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, probability/ statistics, fluids, electronics, materials science/structure of matter, mechanics, statics, thermodynamics, computer science, dynamics and a host of minor subject areas like engineering economics. A very small percentage of engineers actually take and pass the EIT exam. The number has hovered at circa 5%. Several decades ago, I passed the CPA examination and obtained another license in Computer Information Systems Auditing. A CISA must have knowledge in the areas of data center review, systems applications, the operating system of the computer, disaster recovery, contingency planning, developmental systems, the standards which govern facility reviews and a host of other areas. An MBA in Accounting with an Advanced Professional Certificate in Computer Applications/ Information Systems , an Advanced Professional Certificate in Finance and an Advanced Professional Certificate in Organizational Design were earned at New York University-Graduate School of Business (Stern ). In December of 2005, an earned PhD in Accounting was granted by the Ross College. The program entrance requires a previous Masters Degree for admittance together with a host of other criteria. The REGISTRAR of Ross College contact is: Tel . US 202-318-4454 FAX [records for Dr. Joseph S. Maresca Box 646 Bronxville NY 10708-3602] The clinical experience included the teaching of approximately 34 sections of college accounting, economics, statistics, college algebra, law, thesis project coursework and the professional grading of approx. 50,000 CPA examination essays with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Additionally, membership is held in the Sigma Beta Delta International Honor Society chartered in 1994. Significant writings include over 10 copyrights in the name of the author (Joseph S. Maresca) and a patent in the earthquake sciences.