Home / Nobel Prize for Physicists/Astronomers’ Discovery of Accelerated Expansion in the Universe

Nobel Prize for Physicists/Astronomers’ Discovery of Accelerated Expansion in the Universe

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American astronomers Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess, and Australian astronomer Brian Schmidt have been awarded this year’s Nobel Prize in physics for their discoveries and initial theorization as to the rapidly expanding universe.

Scientists point out that with the galaxies, and to a lesser extent, the stars, solar systems, dense star clusters and dark black holes all spreading, the space between entities growing farther, over time the universe will be a far ranging and nearly empty region. What had been our near neighbor, the galaxy Andromeda, will eventually be so distant as to be invisible even to the strongest telescopes. The universe will be a cold and lonely place. That example is quite imperfect, because as time goes by the stars burn out, and even the galaxies undergo change, and die, with new galaxies forming to replace them. Everthing fades over time, and existence goes on.

Most scientists agree that the big bang was the beginning of everything; that the universe is limited. Einstein saw the universe as an expanding sphere, or similiar shape. There are a few scientists who are again leaning to the earlier concept that space is infinite and an absolute. If we journey, they claim, to the farthest reaches of Einstein’s spheroid, to the farthest reaches our imaginations can grasp, we have only stepped just beyond the start.

Space, the capacity for measurement and occupation, is an absolute, going beyond speculation to infinity. Time too may be infinite and absolute, having had no beginning, with no potential for an end. Time is a basic characteristic of existence, and knows no turning. These same modern scientists concede that the touted “big bang” may have been one of a series of big bangs, throbbing forever. And they concede that in infinite space and time there may be, may have been, and doubtless will be, an infinite number of universes; some occupied as ours is, some empty.

The new information that the expansion of the universe is speeding up tends to contradict the possibility that, at some point in time, eons and eons to the future, the galaxies may slow, halt, and begin to fall back toward the starting point. Such conjecture had lead to speculation that all matter and energy could eventually rejoin, coalesce into an immense new black hole, and set the stage for a new “big bang.”

The Noble Prize winning scientists advanced their research by studying the light from decaying supernovas; exploding stars. These supernova studies have allowed scientists to study the dark energy that has been impacting galaxies as far back as nine billion years ago. The Nobel teams became aware that contrary to belief, the universe was accelerating its expansion, and they proposed the cause to be a force which they call “dark energy”. Dark energy is unrelated to enigmatic dark matter. Dark energy, both teams agree is a “repulsive force”, comprising about 73% of the universe.

The chairman of the Nobel committee for physics, Borje Johansson, said, “This discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe is a milestone for cosmology. The expansion history of the universe gives us insights into the evolution of the universe and possibly about the ultimate fate of the universe.” The committee’s assumption is that if the three physicists are correct, and the expansion is accelerating, ‘it could mean the universe will end in a kind of cosmic deep freeze.”

Brian Schmidt, the Australian prize winner, said he was amazed and surprised by the announcement, and the pending receipt of his share of the million and a-half dollar prize. “I feel kind of weak in the knees, very excited and somewhat, I guess, amazed by the situation.”

Adam Riess has something in common with the late Doctor and Professor at Harvard University Albert Einstein. Einstein in 1917 considered the possibility of an anti-gravity effect in the universe. He later called that speculation the “biggest blunder” of his career, and threw it out. Adam Riess first considered acceleration of expansion in 1997. He thought himself wrong, and searched for the error. The following is from Reiss:

Dark energy remains an unexplained force in physics — one that, if better understood, could potentially help reconcile inconsistencies between two of the field’s key theories, quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity. General relativity deals with the forces acting on objects on a large scale, while quantum physics deals with such interactions on a subatomic scale, but neither can fully explain both.

Saul Perlmutter first heard that he was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize from reporters. “It’s interesting to wake up at 3 in the morning by someone saying they’re a reporter and they want to know how you feel. I felt fine, but I said, ‘Well, why do you ask?'” One member of the Perlmutter team, Alex Filippenko, said the competition between the teams was intense. “The good thing is, both teams worked faster because both teams wanted to be first; and the quality of the work improved, because both teams wanted to be best.”

Scientific conjecture has run a wide gamut. Some have suggested “quantum vacuum energy”, an idea from quantum mechanics which states that even in the vacuum of space, particles are winking in and out of existence, thus generating energy. The difficulty, they explain, is to unify the math from quantum mechanics and the equations of general relativity.

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About John Lake

John Lake had a long and successful career in legitimate and musical theater. He moved up into work behind the camera at top motion pictures. He has done a smattering of radio, and television John joined the Blogcritics field of writers owing to a passion for the liberal press, himself speaking out about the political front, and liberal issues. Now the retired Mr. Lake has entered the field of motion picture, television, and video game (now a daily gamer!) critique. His writing is always innovative and immensely readable!
  • Does the universe have a boundary? If so, what lies beyond the boundary? The theory of an expansionary phenomena in the universe
    admits to the existence of a boundary of sorts. In addition, the idea of an expanding universe admits to forces driving the expansion. What is the driver of an expanding force?

    If we admit that there are other universes, then what is the mechanism that holds all of them together?

    The article mentions light and time. Without light, there could be no meaningful time measurement. There would be only dark space with no reference point to gauge time.

  • John Lake

    Ah, some potential for discussion.
    As to the “repulsive force” driving things outward, that is the current issue of contemplation of many in the astrophysical community. When the scientists are starting on something they generally start out with “dark”; in this case, “dark energy”. The dark energy has nothing to do with “dark matter”, which they may eventually concede to be millions or more red dwarfs, which are indeed hard to see, behind all that space dust.
    There needs be other universes, like “our universe” out there in “the universe.” When we construe time and space as absolutes it all falls into place. What holds them together? Maybe “dark ether”!
    Light may aid us humans in our measuring, but is by no means necessary. The need to envision an “observer” has been the downfall of many a noble astronomer!

  • Brian aka Guppusmaximus

    But, if there are multiple universes (which I believe there is) then, like the Doctor stated in comment #1, what encompasses them to hold them together? Where are all these universes existing? Maybe, like marbles in a bowl? If so, is this “bowl” sitting somewhere? Yeesh.. My mind can’t handle the implications:)

  • John Lake

    It’s on the back of a slow moving tortoise.

  • Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Out come o Nobel prize 2011:
    Citation:A concave convex reversal with polarity reversal may contribute a repulsive polarity mass that may contribute typical antimatter as dark matter .There must be reversal possibility always as attractive and repulsive differentiation. The must be spin differentiated polarity reversal that can be analyze during critical and normal speed with increase vibration and stabilization for balancing any rotating system.
    Possibly a new propulsion system could be simulated out of dark matter with reversible polarizing inductive compression and expansion systems using xenon-diflouride-hydrogen-palladium mixtures.
    In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: ?) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. Einstein abandoned the concept after the observation of the Hubble redshift indicated that the universe might not be stationary, as he had based his theory on the idea that the universe is unchanging.[1] However, the discovery of cosmic acceleration in 1998 has renewed interest in a cosmological constant
    In fact adding the cosmological constant to Einstein’s equations does not lead to a static universe at equilibrium because the equilibrium is unstable: if the universe expands slightly, then the expansion releases vacuum energy, which causes yet more expansion. Likewise, a universe which contracts slightly will continue contracting.
    Einstein’s Fudge Factor
    Once upon a time, physicists believed the cosmos was static and unchanging, a celestial clockwork mechanism that would run forever. When Albert Einstein was forming his theory of general relativity in 1917, his calculations indicated that the universe should be expanding. But all the observations up to then showed a static universe. So he figured his calculations were incorrect, and introduced a mathematical “fudge factor” into his equations, known as the cosmological constant, or lambda. It implied the existence of a repulsive force pervading space that counteracts the gravitational attraction holding the galaxies together. This balanced out the “push” and “pull” so that the universe would indeed be static.
    Einstein should have trusted his instincts. Twelve years later, Edwin Hubble was studying distant galaxies, and noticed an intriguing effect in the light they emitted: it had a pronounced “Doppler shift” toward the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Basically, when a light source is moving towards an observer, the wavelength of its emitted light compresses and shifts to the blue end of the spectrum. When moving away from the observer, the wavelength stretches, and the light shifts to the red end of the spectrum.

    A feather in the cap of Albert Einstein:
    These startling observations sent the team back to the idea — first proposed by Albert Einstein but later rejected as his “biggest blunder” — that the so-called vacuum of space might produce a sort of “antigravity” energy that could act repulsively ,accelerating the expansion of the universe.
    Many cosmologists say that understanding dark energy is the biggest challenge in cosmology and physics. The matter must have two opposing inductive spirals as attractive and repulsive configuration. This is to say magnetic field flows in opposite direction produces a repulsion This means formation of North pole and south pole magneto spirals in dark matter region contribute a dark matter. This means a circulation current corresponding to flow in opposite directions repel each other. Even in case of inclined tan angle this happens. The meeting point as opposing force contributing a repulsive character. This gives a clue on different polarity of matter formed. Accordingly the inductive mass current circulation in the same direction produces an attractive force ,but in the opposite direction produces a repulsive force.
    Is is a strange thing that the matter mass could be differentiated as inductive mass of reversible polarity as contemplated by Albert Einstein contributing anti gravity. “Currently, physicists have to choose between those two theories when they calculate something. Dark energy is giving us a peek into how to make those two theories operate together. Nature somehow must know how to bring these both together, and it is giving us some important clues.
    The very mass -matter differentiation out of complex mass as m+im contributing strange behaviour at square root 2c velocity of spin shifting towards perpendicular vector as dis appearing mass ,now the present postulate another important line of thought by mass polarisation.
    Even a critical speed increased vibration initiated could be analysed based on this repulsive attractive polar phases during spin differentiation in between normal speed and critical speed.
    This is what you see in spiral galaxies, they immediately discovered something entirely unexpected. The stars far from the centers of galaxies, in the sparsely populated outer regions, were moving just as fast as those closer in. This was odd, because the visible mass of a galaxy does not have enough gravity to hold such rapidly moving stars in orbit. It followed that there had to be a tremendous amount of unseen matter in the outer regions of galaxies where the visible stars are relatively few. Rubin and Ford went on to study some sixty spiral galaxies and always found the same thing. “What you see in a spiral galaxy,” Rubin concluded, “is not what you get.

    Astrogenetic contributions: Illumination from Casmir force out of super conductive magneticfield interference out of invisible cloaking may be another mile stone Hubble research committee may investigate in future using John Hendry’s invisible cloaking dynamics and we may find such a space domain as lighting out of darkness as postulated early by the laser cooling investigating team. Quantum theory predicts says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Oxford astrogeneticist..
    In fact the graphical representation of convex -concave configuration a observed in Pisces indicates such a possibility of focusing points thus creating a Cassimir force strong enough to carry out such a phase conjugation as multi-optic reflections producing intensities that really illuminate a space out of darkness that may be illuminate automatically.
    Mass-number acceleration-number=force-number, and if we further fix that the accelerations are measured in the stationary system K, then from the above equations, we obtain:[WS 1] —
    Longitudinal mass =
    Transversal mass =
    Naturally, when other definitions are given of the force and the acceleration, other numbers are obtained for the mass; hence we see that we must proceed very carefully in comparing the different theories of the motion of the electron.

    Conclusion: A concave convex reversal with polarity reversal may contribute a repulsive polarity mass that may contribute typical antimatter as dark matter .There must be reversal possibility always as attractive and repulsive differentiation. The must be spin differentiated polarity reversal that can be analyse during critical and normal speed with increase vibration and stabilization for balancing any rotating system.
    This information could be use as Repulsive attractive propulsion system out of concavo-convex resonance out of dark matter simulation thanks to Hubble research.
    1) Vortex amplification at the center of a Neutrino blackhole named after
    future Nobel Laureate John Pendry-reg [Incident: 111002-000074]
    [personal contact info deleted by comments editor]
    2) [personal contact info deleted by comments editor]
    3) Thank you for submitting your issue to us. The tracking number for your new ticket is #15067-23666. You should receive an email containing this information. You can track the status of your ticket in .
    4)A feather in the cap of Albert Einstein in understanding attractive and repulsive inductive mass-reg [Incident: 111005-000012] news@nature.com
    5) hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=632 PROJ=13
    6) 1) Some secrets of Bermuda traingle quantum mechanics was revealed by Oxford astro physics team member Sankaravelayudhan nandakumar-reg [Incident: 100816-000050] news@nature.com
    7) Backward and forward motion positive and negative dielectric on dipolarised negative medium may reveal Bermuda triangle as ejected from under sea mata materials collected in wormholes-reg [Incident: 100816-000045news@nature.com
    Synthesis and Structure of Formally Hexavalent Palladium Complexes” [personal contact info deleted by comments editor]
    Out come o Nobel prize 2011:
    Citation:A concave convex reversal with polarity reversal may contribute a repulsive polarity mass that may contribute typical antimatter as dark matter .There must be reversal possibility always as attractive and repulsive differentiation. The must be spin differentiated polarity reversal that can be analyzed during critical and normal speed with increase vibration and stabilization for balancing any rotating system.using basically palladium-Xenon diflouride hydrogen mixtures for a new propulsion system.
    Sankaravelaudjhan Nandakumar
    [personal contact info deleted by comments editor]

  • John Lake

    Well that clears it up, nicely!
    Sankaravelaudjhan Nandakumar, if he is the author of this comment, is a renowned Oxford astrogeneticist, and frankly his lucidity is a nice departure from proposals offered by the more opaque members of the field.
    Having said that, I can’t help but wonder at the astrogenetic relevance of the Bermuda triangle!

  • John Lake

    To wit:
    “…may reveal Bermuda triangle as ejected from under sea mata materials collected in wormholes.”

  • Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Dark matter could be viewed as invisible cloaking screen domain in which this stuff is stored which can be simulated by removing the invisible cloaking screen for a Possible vortex differentiation Propulsion system: The fixed point motion and deviation towards repulsive attractive natural force is observed in space with reference to meta material analogy that swing between + theta and – theta semi circular boundaries from Toa to s plane ring dynamics must have a meaning as the inner string current with reference to outer string current direction is changed between 1/2 Li2 and 1/2 cv2 where the induction energy and capacity energy is interchanged and a critical energy amplification is possible with reference to Nyquist gaining systems,this could be achieved.
    Thus this is as well well comparable with reference to multiple reflective photon energy gaining more voltage by analogy.Hence a repetitive polarity reversal will gain more amplification in any propulsion system as you squeeze the spiralling nozzle between the inner circle and outer circle out of eccentricity may act like a converging nozzle out side due centrifugal vortex flow or converging nozzle inside as centeripetal force ,thanks to Hall’s magneticfield quantisation vortex squeezing.
    Unfortunately, the below scenario violates the (several independently) verified fact that dark energy has positive energy density and negative pressure for which there is no electromagnetic analog available. The electromagnetic coil and tube device described below will not produce the negative pressure that is observed to produce the gravitationally repulsive effect that we call cosmological expansion. The dark energy negative pressure is exactly equal to the dark energy positive energy density which has been determined to 6 sigma. The only form of matter in this universe that has this type of equation of state is quantum vacuum energy. The energy density of dark energy is 1 nanoJoule per cubic meter, which means that its pressure is negative 1 nanoJoule per cubic meter.
    As for the energy density and pressure produced by electromagnetic devices, in every reference frame, the electromagnetic pressure and electromagnetic energy density will be positive and thus produce a gravitationally attractive force on something nearby. Also, the equation of state for electromagnetic radiation is such that the electromagnetic pressure is one-third of the electromagnetic energy density, and both quantities are positive. This is not observed in dark energy as noted above.
    Also, internal electromagnetic momentum in the system described below will act to compensate any external electromagnetic thrust produced, so the device will produce a net thrust of zero.
    But this could be simulated to produce Nyquist gain energy by multiple reversible dynamics along with reversible vortex analogy by giving an eccentricity in converging nozzles using Hall’s magneticfield quantization
    Sankaravelyudhan Nadakumar.
    Leave a Reply

  • John Lake

    Time will confirm that the red dwarfs produced the unexplained mass and related gravities that suggested the existence of dark matter.
    Teachers must be taught new information, textbooks must be changed, and these things take time.

  • John Lake

    In concert with my previous comment about red dwarfs in dusty areas accounting for theorized dark matter, I should add that the term “dark matter” has also been, perhaps arbitrarily, applied to other unexplained phenomena. Unexplained mass and gravitation at the subatomic level or within active stars has been thrown into the ‘one size fits all’ category of dark matter. These phenomena are unrelated to red dwarfs, and we expect will at some future time yield up some explanation.

  • Igor

    Hubble showed us that there is a velocity, a first derivative WRT time, in the spatial relationships of things, and this new research says that there is an acceleration, a second derivative WRT time, in the spatial relations of things. So it seems obvious to the old mathematician that there be many more orders of differentiation in spatial relations, and many more coefficients in a long, possibly infinite, series.

    Thus, whether one considers this evidence of a McLaren series, Laplace transform, or Fourier series, etc., it suggests that spatial relations WRT time may have any shape, and even the strong possibility of periodicity.

    My my my. There’s a whole universe of possibilities out there! as we never imagined before.

    Of course, it may occur to one that time itself is the problem here! That time is simply the wrong measure. That there is some other measure, perhaps unspoken for, to which time itself must be related. Just as logarithmic scales are often used to bring various XY plots into perspective by helping straight lines emerge from the murk of complex functions.

  • John Lake

    Always the conservative, I continue to maintain time and space are true infinites, and absolute.

  • Igor

    @12-John Lake: actually, considering modern quantum theory, where 11 dimensions seems more appropriate, the old 4 dimensional world of time and space seems quaint, and radically retro, not conservative.

    “Always the conservative, I continue to maintain time and space are true infinites, and absolute.”

  • Gentlemen, the now deleted “physics” comment is some weird kind of spam that we are now deleting.

    Sorry for any momentary confusion.

    Christopher Rose
    Blogcritics Comments Editor

  • Igor

    Christopher: I don’t know what the “physics” comment is that you referred to, but I think a comment I made was deleted, and it seemed harmless enough when I posted it.

  • Igor

    After poking around for an hour I’ve concluded that the comments attributed to “Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar” are almost certainly bogus.

    It works especially well when they cop the name of a real person whose name sounds so profound.

    There seems to be a group of mischievous people on the internet who extract profound sounding articles from obscure journals and put them into blog commentaries. Sometimes they season the plagiarisms with references to ‘bossanova’ or ‘sanskrit’, etc., for piquancy, I assume.

    It’s so easy to do, especially on non-refereed blogs like BC. Heck, it’s even done on semi-refereed blogs for lay use by specialists.

    Problems of plagiarism, forgery, false credentials, etc., are epidemic on blogs these days.

  • John Lake

    Its all bunk, you know. Just yesterday I was walking past a massive black hole and I noticed my watch didn’t change an iota.
    Incidentally, in some of my previous articles I made the statement that matter at the speed of light has infinite mass. As it happens, scientists say that matter at that speed has no mass. So, I was wrong.
    The whole matter of energy and matter and light speeds is up in the air, as I see it. As to physics in sub-atomic particles, … time will tell.

  • Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Variable binding energy per nucleon may be converted as nuclear attractive force by suitably adding nickel equivalent catalyst as magnetic-paramagnetic resonance oscillations wherein a combination of fusion and fission reaction may be possible that what is really happening in some portions of the star as combinational reactions at critical junctures.

    When I was discussing with my students regarding the variable binding energy per nucleon verses mass number based on more attractive nuclear force for lighter elements predominating over repulsive neutron forces especially when w select nickel as a catalyst there is every possibility to induce a fast reaction with nickel vapour. Now I am fully convince about the possibility of generating cold fusion using palladiuim zirconium oxide with nickel base combination bring out quick reaction due to dominating nuclear attrcative force over repulsive neutron barrier.

    Because nuclei are all positively charged, they strongly repel one another.[34] Normally, in the absence of a catalyst such as a muon, very high kinetic energies are required to overcome this repulsion.[ Extrapolating from known fusion rates, the rate for uncatalyzed fusion at room-temperature energy would be 50 orders of magnitude lower than needed to account for the reported excess heat.In muon-catalyzed fusion there are more fusions because the presence of the muon causes deuterium nuclei to be 207 times closer than in ordinary deuterium gas.[140] But deuterium nuclei inside a palladium lattice are further apart than in deuterium gas, and there should be fewer fusion reactions, not more.

    It was proposed that a higher density of hydrogen inside the palladium and a lower potential barrier could raise the possibility of fusion at lower temperatures than expected from a simple application of Coulomb’s law. In 1999 the Japan C-F Research Society was established to promote the independent research into cold fusion that continued in Japan.[78] The society holds annual meetings, the 12th meeting took place on December 17-18, 2011 at Kobe University[79]

    In May 2008 Japanese researcher Yoshiaki Arata (Osaka University) demonstrated an experiment that produced heat when deuterium gas was introduced into a cell containing a mixture of palladium and zirconium oxide.[text 3] In an August 2009 peer reviewed paper Akira Kitamura (Kobe University) et al. reported about replication of this experiment. Replication of earlier work by Arata had been claimed by McKubre at SRI.Triple tracks” in a CR-39 plastic radiation detector claimed as evidence for neutron emission from palladium deuteride.

    Future Impact of Rossi’s Cold Fusion :Italian inventor Andrea Rossi claims to have a commercial ready cold fusion technology that can produce large amounts of energy dirt cheap from nickel and hydrogen. The technology is supposed to be safe and reliable. Recent testing hints this might be the case. If true what does this mean for our future? A promising cold fusion reactor will be designed with thermo couplers to detect the increase in temperatures out of Seebeck -Peltier effect.

  • John Lake

    I appreciate your clarification of the repulsive neutron forces. You make it clear and unmistakable.
    “Extrapolating from known fusion rates, the rate for uncatalyzed fusion at room-temperature energy would be 50 orders of magnitude lower than needed to account for the reported excess heat. In muon-catalyzed fusion.”
    You are promoting the addition of nickel for less costly production of energy.
    We at BC are gratified that you choose our pages to make these points to your students and the general public.
    Please encourage your students to spend time at the site, and view our excellent liberal blog segments which are exceeded nowhere. (little humor [as the blogger in question is your modest host])
    Seriously, this is a much more readable comment, and I actually understood most of it. John Lake

  • Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Citation:Dark matter Abell triangular clusters forming a
    swing dance between themselves towards interaction in Capricorn region-reg –

    hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=10284 PROJ=13

    Citation:Dark matter Abell triangular clusters forming a swing dance
    between themselves towards interaction in Capricorn region

    A Abell triangular configuration
    with a fourth domain may be may give an interactive dynamics forming a swing
    dance to deal with dark matter dynamics. The dark matter clump for the galaxy
    at the left is significantly displaced from the position of the galaxy itself,
    possibly implying dark matter-dark matter interactions of an unknown nature is
    occurring. Every massive galaxy has a black hole at its center, and the heftier
    the galaxy, the bigger its black hole. But why are the two related? After all,
    the black hole is millions of times smaller and less massive than its home
    galaxy. A new study of football-shaped collections of stars called elliptical
    galaxies finds that the invisible hand of dark matter somehow influences black
    hole growth. two spiral galaxies – each with supermassive black holes at their
    center – as they are about to collide and form an elliptical galaxy. New
    research shows that galaxies’ dark matter halos influence these mergers and the
    resulting growth of supermassive black holes. One may regard the electron pairs
    as “swing dancing” where dancing pairs hold hands but do not move in
    any synchronized fashion. In a superconductor, the motion of paired electrons
    is highly coordinated, similar to waltzing couples on a dance floor. In the
    “normal” or non-superconducting state, electrons move independently,
    bumping into one another occasionally and dissipating energy. What the new
    research has identified is an in-between state where the electrons form pairs,
    but each pair moves independently. One may regard the electron pairs as
    “swing dancing” where dancing pairs hold hands but do not move in any
    synchronized fashion.

    Conclusion: Four phase high
    momentum mass transfer dynamics is operative between neutral and three phase
    dynamics in dark matter critical point for collision and forming Blackhole in between repulsive and attractive

    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar on
    behalf of Hubble Telescope Research and Simon Hooker’s research group Oxford
    university,Clarendon Lab

    Ref:Lattice QCD predictions on
    the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated
    during several plenary and parallel session presentations. We obtain fairly
    general conditions that ensure that gravity in the halo region is attractive.
    We also investigate the stability of circular orbits, along with a different
    role for quark matter. Bag-model quark matter meeting these conditions
    therefore provides a suitable model for dark matter. We
    show that color ferromagnetic phase of quark matter is energetically more favored than color
    superconducting phases in neutron stars. Namely, increasing baryon density in
    neutron stars transforms nuclear matter into the quark matter of the color ferromagnetic
    phase. Further increase of the density makes the quark matter take the color superconducting phases.


    Four phase high
    momentum mass transfer dynamics is operative between neutral and three phase
    dynamics in dark matter critical point for collision and forming Blackhole in
    between repulsive and attractive collisions – 00307928

    support: ISSUE=10288 PROJ=13