*BLACK, BROWN, AND BEIGE: A TONE PARALLEL TO THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO*
(0:00 – 1:03)
Duke Ellington’s spoken intro.
i. "Work Song" (modified rondo form: ABACAD, with coda section replacing return to "A")
(A) Sonny Greer plays two-bar opening on tympani, then full band enters with march-like "Work Song" theme (2 bars), repeated three times.
(B) Reeds develop the theme in swing rhythm, at a walking pace; trumpets repeat “Work Song” theme at 1:42, slight variation in lower key at 1:45, modulating back into tonic at
Trombones restate “Work Song” theme, echoed by reeds (1:57) and
trumpets (1:59), then all sections riff until partial restatement by trumpets at 2:08
Restatement (minus first two notes) by trumpets leads back to the reeds' development/swing, this time much longer.
Muted unison note by horns.
Tympani returns for two bars (w/ tempo increase in second bar), then
Violent, dissonant blast by horns, spiraling
down to flatted bottom chord at 2:51; at 2:53 Violin (Ray Nance) plays four-note phrase, underscored by low horns. At (2:57) Tympani (Greer) strikes, then drums and bass (Junior Raglin) lead back to
(A) Repeat of initial “Work Song” theme, 3 times. (This rendering has stronger harmony statements on the horns).
(C) Baritone Sax (Harry Carney) enters solo, with echos of earlier reed development and quotes of "Work Song" theme. At 3:25 drums and horns softly re-enter as accompaniment and subsume Carney back into ensemble at 4:33. At 4:38 Trumpets reintroduce Carney, then punctuate his phrases until 4:48.
Winds play four-note, two-bar phrase, then repeat with trumpet interpolation (4:55), followed by syncopated comping by full horn section (playing in the lowest register).
(A) Return to tympani and “Work Song” (5:03), 3 times, then
(D) Trumpet (Harold Baker) descending cadenza figure, re-ascending at 5:23 (with other horns punctuating) and again at 5:28, leading back into movement into swing passage (5:33) Trumpet, then trombone meld into reed-driven swing passage with high, muted
trombone (Tricky Sam Nanton) entering at 5:58.
Trombone solo begins with reed accompaniment, Carney counterpoint (diminuendo).
Nanton fades into ensemble, which modulates with ostinato rhythm.