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Maps are graphic representations of the surface of the earth or particular geographic regions. Maps can represent physical, political, climatic, geologic, or other aspects of geography. Most are two-dimensional, but three dimensional maps are also useful, including those which represent topography in relief.

Maps are among the earliest form of written human records, having developed through various levels of sophistication. Notable advancements were seen in the Ptolemeic period when the concept of scale was introduced, in the 16th century with the invention of the Mercator Projection to accurately account for the curvature of the earth, and with the subsequent introduction of standardized longitude and latitude. The most recent advances in map technology have come with the application of satellite photography as a source for more accurate mapping data.

The most famous historic maps are probably Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd century map of the ancient world from his Geographia and Abraham Ortelius' Mapa Mundi of 1570.

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