The problem of evil in the Bahir is also related to the introduction of the idea of gilgul, re-incarnation (later developed in the Zohar and in Sefer Gilgulim and other writings of the Ari’s school). In the Bahir, re-incarnation explains the problem of injustice in this world; punishment and reward are a result of one’s previous life rather than a direct consequence of the present. As such, the idea of re-incarnation becomes a theodicy, i.e. the justification of the belief in divine providence. This is of course a rather unsettling scheme if one considers God’s satanic attribute.