Previously we discussed Muhammed's (pbuh) implementation of a new political order in Medina, and his instructions to the Muhajireen (immigrant Arabs from Mecca) and the Ansar (local Arabs from Medina) to join in a pact of forming one brotherhood, and to align themselves to one another to effectively combat any connivance the 'Unbelievers' from the Aws and Al-Khazraj could devise against them.
We looked at how Muhammed (pbuh) endeavoured ceaselessly to bring cohesion amongst his followers and how the Aws and Al-Khazraj felt cheated at the emergence of the Prophet (pbuh) on the political scene—thwarting their ideals of claiming Medina for themselves to govern.
We spoke about the different tribes of Jews that existed in Medina, and their aspirations of winning the Prophet (pbuh) over to their side to fight against the Christians whom they hated for having expelled them from Palestine.
One can thus imagine the political powder-keg that must have existed at that time.
On the one side there were the Muslims who were now solely reliant on Muhammed (pbuh) for guidance and instruction; on the other hand there were the Jews, Christians, and Unbelievers, as well as those 'in-betweeners' who had reverted to Islam, but were not really Muslim. They were the ones who took pleasure in back-stabbing the Prophet (pbuh) at every turn! They were the ones who befriended those Jews and Christians who had it in for Muhammed (pbuh)—and together, they plotted with the 'Unbelievers' how to overthrow the Prophet (pbuh) and expel him from their city.
We learn about one incident where these hypocrites built their own mosque and endeavoured to cause a split between the Muslims. The Prophet (pbuh) summarily burnt down that mosque and effectively stopped any further attempts at such deviant ideologies.
One point of note, though, is that Muhammed (pbuh), unlike any other Prophet before him, was politically motivated enough to understand the social implications of leaving any emerging subversiveness unattended. He knew that his presence in Medina was causing dissension amongst the different tribes of Arabs inhabiting the city, and he speedily instituted a strategy whereby all concerned parties had to swear fealty to him and abide by this new constitution. He instituted the 'Covenant of Medina' which to this day is hailed as a 'master-strategy' of political expedience.
Muhammed (pbuh), as has been said before and recorded through all the annals of history, could neither read nor write; he could not even spell his own name! But he understood and appreciated the power of the pen.
He therefore had this particular 'Covenant' reduced to writing—by one of his trusted scribes—and all concerned parties then had to abide by this constitution of Islam. Many of the Jews of Medina were also a part of it.